Another is the nature of the interaction of the individual with the same political psychologists who follow Adam Smith, Herbert Spencer, William Godwin and see the personal interest of the mechanism that drives the most and policies. The model of “interest” suggests that the social and political order arises as a natural result of combining the interests of different people, so the public does not need the power of repression, and the rational individual’s awareness of the benefits of their joint efforts. The most important tenet in this tradition is to consider the individual as a subject of political activity. Modern liberal and neo-conservative theorists, using this model, sharply negative attitude to all forms of collectivism, centralization of power and subordination of the individual to it. The problems of the political system, power and freedom they consider an individualistic perspective.
“The behavioral revolution” led to the release of the problem of personality in politics in a special area within the political psychology. There are several types of research representing this area. First, the so-called case-stadiz (case studies), or qualitative case studies, the focus of which are unique individuals, whether it be a politician or an ordinary citizen. Although the methods used to create individual portraits of political, aimed at disclosing their unique personal qualities, they might meet the scientific criteria. It uses standardized procedures for handling materials.
Much of the work in this direction is a psychobiography politicians. Among the works psihobiograficheskogo areas stand out works of Luther E. Erickson, A. Hitler and Eleanor Roosevelt, George A. of U.S. President Woodrow Wilson, E. Wolfenstein about Indira Gandhi, Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky. A gallery of portraits, among which you can find almost all the known world politicians: up to Boris Yeltsin, Saddam Hussein and Bill Clinton. The main objective of case stadiz – to give an idea about the identity of the policy, based on the experience of its primary socialization and learn from that experience inner motives of political actions. Describing the experience of life policy, case-stadiz tend to detract from the overall political situation.
Another direction of the study of personality in politics – aggregation, in contrast, builds the facts of personal biography in the historical context of the policy of the political process. Authors such as J. Cox, S. Hughes, M. Bloch, Bernard Brodie, AJ Gurevich and other historians and political scientists see the problem is not in the reduction of political events to the actions of individuals, but in bringing the personal component as a factor in the explanation of historical events in politics. This direction explores the impact of personality factors on processes such as wars, revolutions, national character and political culture.
The third major trend is typological studies. In their attempts to “classify politicians in psychological terms from the most primitive to the most complex.” The reasons for the classification are the psychological characteristics of the individual politicians, the properties of their behavior, thinking, style of interpersonal relations, decision making, etc. One of the most well-known classification scheme is Adorno, based on the concept of authoritarianism. M. Rokeach proposed as the basis for the typology of politicians such quality as dogmatism. D. Riesman chose two basic personality orientation: on the tradition and internal goals. D. Lasswell and J. Barber release political role, so Mr. Lasswell proposes a typology that includes the role of “agitator”, “admin” and “theoretical” and John Barber – the role of “spectator”, “advertises”, “resisting” and “legislator”.
Summarizing the development perspective of personality in politics, American political psychologist Fred Greenstein proposed the concept of determining the value of the personal factor in the political process. Its role is particularly important in the first place, when there is a new political circumstances that have no analogues in the past. Secondly – in the complex and contradictory situation with a large number of uncertainties. Third – in a situation where there is a choice between the different forces that offer different political solutions. According to F. Greenstein, the role of the individual in the political process, the more, the more sensitive environment to ensure that the person she has, the higher the position of a person in the political system and the greater the power of the ego of a politician.
Note that today is not much discussion about whether or not to the study of personality in politics. Vulgar psychological reductionism early work gave way to a balanced account of both personal and situational variables shown in the multivariate approach.
10.2. The structure of personality
The political consciousness of the individual develops in the course of internalization of external for her goals and values of the political system, the family’s inner circle. But to determine the behavior of these ideas, goals, and beliefs can only become its own constituents. To develop in-depth personal beliefs that “a law” would determine its behavior in politics, it is necessary to include all the “floor” of the individual, all levels of consciousness and its activities. In modern psychological literature have identified three major levels of personality structure: biological, psychological and social. Since the biological elements, we will rise to the psychological, and then to the social, bearing in mind that the higher the level of the individual properties of the lower integrates, manages their operation. Properties of man as an individual part of the structure of personality, being subjected to socialization.
Biological level of the individual
The question of whether the impact on the political behavior of the identity of its biology, scientists take a long time. In contemporary political science has a special subdiscipline – biopolitics. It examines the manifestations of altruism, violence, aggression, defense
responses, domination and other fundamental properties of nature Homo sapiens in politics. And equally important to understand the place in politics can take such biological components of personality as heredity, temperament, gender, age, health and physical constitution. It is clear that we have here, they are not interested in their own right, as well as the determinants of political behavior. Not being independent, they define those aspects of political behavior in which a person has a significant meaning. First of all, according to these factors is the selection of those who will take an active policy in the leading role.
For example, the age of a politician is essential to his nomination. It is known that at crucial times, in times of crisis in leadership positions put forward more often young, sometimes very young leaders. This is due to the need to complete the whole or a substantial change of the former political elite and the extension of the generation that was not associated with the former ruling class because of their age. Let us recall the 16-year-old commander of the Civil War, young Nicaraguan komandantos. Today, Russia is no surprise the age of Alexander Nemtsov, who became governor in ’32, or Kirsan Ilyumzhinov, who became president of Kalmykia in ’33. The Russian government has a lot of ministers under the age of 40 years, they are in stark contrast to the leaders of the Brezhnev era, which led out by the hand to the podium, and they could read three consecutive copies of his speech.
At the same time it should be borne in mind that in periods of stable development of the political process on the upper floors of the political system out politicians who hold their positions long term, sometimes enough to grow old. Venerable age plays an important role in traditional political culture, where it symbolizes the conventional wisdom. An example is the Iranian religious leader Khomeini, the elderly Chinese leaders Mao Zedong and Deng Xiao Ping, Korean leader Kim Il Sen and others. At the same time, the Russian policy of the age and the associated morbidity was an important factor in the negative perception of President Boris Yeltsin in the last years of his tenure, as, indeed, it was up to him, and with L. Brezhnev. The election of Vladimir Putin was determined in many respects his youthful appearance and health compared to his predecessor.
Age – biological characteristics, with no absolute political values. But age data become one or the other political meaning under the influence of traditions, social needs and the evolving situation at the moment. Biological characteristics play a role of “stopper” in the selection and promotion of this or that political role. But age has its own psychological effects such as rigid thinking, adherence to the habits and stereotypes, etc.
Gender also plays an important role in the performance of political functions. Women have always had a policy of some importance, but more often than not in official positions (especially in the top ranks in the state), and the “behind the scenes”. This restriction is often manifested in a direct or indirect discrimination, triggered a wave of the feminist movement. Radical feminists argue, there was a change of the main driving contradiction of the political process: the place of the class struggle or the struggle of nations came, in their opinion, the battle of the sexes.