It is significant that, along with those who have not yet felt a significant change for the better, there is a group of people (23% of them) who assessed the new regime as deterioration over the years reign of the first President of Russia. This is usually – not zhaluyuschie Soviet power “right”, “liberal.” This group is characterized by the fear of a return to authoritarianism. They rebuked the current government has a very specific, “ideological” nature, “the lack of firm principles and objectives”, “Leningrad fraternity”, “kegebeshny robbery, cretinism”, “tightening of the press,” “the power of the Administration of the President”, “power become militarized. ”
Finally, about 17% of the respondents could not understand what was going on, deterioration or improvement of power. Their emotions are characterized by such remarks against the current government as “unknown”, “swamp”, “do not understand”.
Thus we face several types of relationship to power and its transformation during the decade. The first type – let’s call them “orthodox Communists.” For them, the Soviet regime – the “golden age”, which is irrevocably gone, and neither Yeltsin regime, nor Putin’s team can not get it back. “In Soviet times it was good, under Boris Yeltsin – the horror. Now – the continuation of this horror. ” It must be said that the number of representatives of this type since 1996 has decreased significantly. Those directly identified with the communist ideology among surveyed in 1996 was 14.5%, in 2000 7.1% of them remained. Decreased and the number of Socialists (from 9.3% to 8.4% – respectively).
Along with the “orthodox”, you can select another type, which we denote as “unprincipled communists.” This group defines his attitude to authority as follows: “in the Soviet era – believe”, “under Yeltsin -” hate “,” now – “I do not understand.” For these respondents, the communist idea was not a dogma. Yes, they believed in it, but as long as this idea has been associated more or less normal life. When life has changed, their positive image of power changed the negative.
Representatives of this type are now prepared to support the conversion of Vladimir Putin, hoping that he would bring order and life will return to normal. For a man with such a mentality in power are important measurements such as strength and stability, so they positively evaluated the power of the Soviet years. At
Boris Yeltsin, the power was perceived by them as “unbalanced”, “shaky”, “chaotic”, “chaotic.” The current regime for them is good to the extent to which there is hope for a return to “normal”, which they understand, first of all, as “strengthening the vertical of power”, though, and see that as long as it only makes a “serious attempt to normalize.”
Of particular personality type is on the opposite communist ideological positions – a “liberal” or “anarchists.” For them, the Soviet authorities – the power of a totalitarian, dushivshaya freedom, to close from the world iron curtain gerontocratic, it was replaced by a genuinely democratic reform early Yeltsin period (1991 – 1994 gg.). This is a time they see as a move away from democracy and a return to the oppression of the individual by the state. For them – the main criterion of satisfaction is its lack of power. In quantitative terms, compared to the mid 90s by the Liberals in 2000, increased slightly (from 11% to 13.4%). Anarchists, however, the number of which was generally low compared with other political orientations in the mid-90s, relatively increased from 0.6% to 2.5%.
Finally, type “adapted optimist.” He does not see the Soviet era in black light, and the current mode is optimistic estimates. The only gap – Yeltsin’s rule – does not cause him warm feelings, but he believes his “ordinary transition” from which this type of time to recover.
The overall conclusion regarding the development of the power of images in time, as seen by our respondents, is that the number of optimists in the current period exceeds the number of pessimists, although satisfaction with their lives for this period decreased slightly. In this case, the basic parameters of the power of images can be placed on the three axes. The first axis – its force measurement. And in Soviet times and under Boris Yeltsin, and now the power is considered from the point of view of how much. It is strong or weak. Estimates perfect power as the real rulers are found in this semantic field.